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General tips

Ues of simple sewing tools and equipment 



Learning objectives

At the end of this ARTICLE, readers should be able to:

  1. Identify tools and equipment for sewing;
  2. State the uses of simple sewing tools and equipment;
  3. Practice how to handle needle and thread;
  4. Practice how to thread the needle quickly and correctly.

 simple tools and equipment

There are quite a number of tools and equipment used for needle craft, each has its place and usefulness, its care and handling for good efficiency in the tasks, which they are used to perform.

These tools are many but we shall consider only a number of simple ones, namely: sewing machine, bobbin, dress maker’s or tailor’s chalk, tape measure, needle, pattern pin, pin cushion, scissor, pinking shears, seam ripper, sewing table, thimble, thread/yarn, brown paper, tracing wheel, sewing box or basket, the steam iron, the ironing board, the pressing cloth, spools of thread, shears.

 The sewing machine

A sewing machine is used to stitch fabric or other material together with thread. Sewing machines were invented long ago during the first industrial revolution to reduce the amount of manual sewing work performed by clothing companies. They have greatly improved the efficiency and productivity of fabrics and clothing industries since the invention of the first sewing machine.

The main stitch of most older machines, chain stitch, has one major drawback: it is weak and the stitch can easily be pulled apart. As machines were being used, people realized that a stitch more. Suited to machine production was needed, this led to the creation of lock stitches.

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A lock stitch is created by two separate threads interlocking through the two layers of fabric, resulting in a stronger, sturdier stitch that looks the same from both sides of the fabrics. Sewing machines made today are of different types, hand operated, those operated by foot pedals or those that are electric. They are capable of producing a great variety of plain or patterned stitches.

 Uses of simple sewing equipment and tools

  1. The sewing machine: this is used for making or mending clothes or household linens. It can also carry out fancy sewing which are decorative, including patterns such as shirring, smocking embroidery or quilting
  2. A sew table for a sewing machine: this is like a writing table on which the sewing machine is placed for us. The height must be right and the space sufficient for activities related to the job of sewing to be easily carried out.
  • Stitching awl: this is a pointed tool for making small holes.
  1. Bobbin: this is a cylinder or spindle for holding or dispensing thread
  2. Bodkin: bodkin is a blunt needle for drawing a tape of ribbon through a loop or hem.
  3. Dressmaker’s or tailor’s shear: these are large than the ordinary and are also very sharp for a good job of cutting fan precisely
  • Tape measure: this does all the work of measuring people, objects or cloth. It is usually 60 inches in length and half an inch wide.
  • Needles: when threaded, they are used for mending or making clothing or household linens
  1. Brown paper: patterns, of whatever need, to be made are cut out on brown paper. The pattern is then placed on a piece of cloth to cut out and sew. This process ensures that a guide is provided for whatever style to be made.
  2. Seam ripper: this is used to remove stitches that are incorrectly used on clothing
  3. Thread or yarn: these are used when needed, both work together to mend or make clothing
  • Tailor’s chalk: this is used when a pattern is made, or used to trace out patterns on a piece of cloth to be sewn
  • Sewing box: this is used for the storage of all needle craft tools and accessories
  • Pins: these are used to hold two pieces of clothes together while we sew them. They keep the pieces together without allowing shifting while we sew them together.
  1. Iron and ironing board: every stage in clothing requires pressing. The ironing boards supply the platform on which the iron does the pressing.
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 Using simple sewing tools and equipment

The following points are important when using simple sewing tools and equipment:

  1. The use of simple sewing tools and equipment render sewing pleasurable and easy. Using the sewing machine at the right height prevents fatigue.
  2. Storage of tools and equipment in a designated place allows them to be within reach when you need them. A sewing box or basket stores all the tools needed for sewing.
  3. Sewing tools and equipment requires care so that we can prolong their usage. The sewing machine requires oiling to lubricate the parts that do the work sewing. Running a sewing machine while it is not in use, power of for efficient use.
  4. Needles and pins are sharp objects, and we need to handle them properly to avoid any accident which they can cause.
  5. The pressing of collars, seams, hems, or any clothing object made, are done on a pressing board with a pressing iron. For coal iron, pour out the coal which is on fire and quench it with water to prevent a fire hazard. If electric iron is used, set and regulate to the required temperature and handle the iron with care.

Evaluation questions

  1. Name three tools for sewing
  2. Name five uses of simple tools and equipment
  3. Thread needles correctly and safely
  4. Mention three simple methods of using tools and equipment


  1. Pupils are to examine the sewing machine displayed. They can take turn to sit down and turn it without threads
  2. Pupils should hold needles and have fun threading them correctly and safely
  3. Examine the needles on display and write down the uses of each
  4. Pupils to store away sewing materials in their proper place
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The History Of Lexus And Milestones Reached From 1989 To 2019




The History Of Lexus And Milestones Reached From 1989 To 2019

Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of the Toyota Motor Corporation and also Japan’s largest selling band of premium cars.

The history of Lexus could be traced back to a covert sedan project, a challenge issued by the founder Eiji Toyoda to create the world’s best car.

Below is what went down about Lexus from the year 1989 to 2019.


Lexus launched with two sedans, the LS 400 and ES 250, and a commitment to pursue perfection.

A single consumer complaint launches a special service campaign, earning the brand recognition as the new standard in personalized service.


Out of thousands of parties interested in a Lexus franchise, only 121 top-notch dealers are selected for Lexus’ first year of business.


Lexus introduced an all-new ES 330 as well as the SC 300 and SC 300 sport coupes.

Lexus outsold both Mercedes-Benz and BMW to become the best-selling luxury import brand in the U.S.


The GS 300 luxury sport sedan was introduced.

Industry-leading Certified Pre-Owned (CPO) program was introduced.


Completely redesigned second generation LS 400 goes on sale.


100% tariffs on select Japanese luxury vehicles proposed by U.S. government in effort to settle long-standing U.S.-Japan trade dispute.

An agreement was reached between U.S. and Japan and trade war averted.

The LX 450 luxury sport utility was announced.


Lexus LX 450 and all-new ES 300 go on sale.


Redesigned LS 400 featuring VVT-I was introduced.

Next-generation GS 400 and GS 300 luxury performance sedans go on sale.


Lexus introduced the RX 300, which created the luxury crossover segment.

Lexus LX 470 luxury sport utility vehicle debuted.

Monthly sales surpass al luxury competitors – a first for any international automaker.


One-millionth vehicle sold in the U.S.


Lexus develops a second offering in the entry-luxury sedan category with the IS 300 sport sedan.


First import luxury brand to sell 20,000+ vehicles in one month.

Lexus became the top-selling luxury brand in the U.S.


Lexus updates its classic SC model into a hardtop convertible, the SC 430.

Fourth-generation ES 300 goes on sale.


The ES 300 and RX 300 are America’s best-selling luxury car and SUV.

The GX 470 mid-size luxury sport utility vehicle was announced.

LF-S, first Lexus Future concept vehicle, unveiled in Tokyo, showcases new design philosophy.


All-new second generation RX 330 goes on sale.

LF-X concept vehicle unveiled.

Lexus announces the RX 330 will become the first Lexus vehicle to be manufactured in North America at the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada, Inc. (TMMC) in Cambridge, Ontario facility in Canada. It is the first plant outside Japan to produce a Lexus model.


Two-millionth vehicle sold in the U.S.


Introduced the world’s first luxury hybrid vehicle, the RX 400h.

Third-generation GS 300 and GS 430 go on sale.

All-new IS 250 and IS 350 sport sedans go on sale.

LFA super-premium two-seat GT sports car concept revealed in Detroit

LF-Sh concept vehicle revealed in Tokyo.

Lexus-badged vehicles sold in Japan for the first time.


Lexus’ second hybrid offering and industry’s first luxury hybrid sport sedan, GS 450h, goes on sale.

ES 350, LS 460 and LS 460 L goes on sale.


Lexus Pursuit of Potential philanthropic program launches

Premium hybrid sedan, the world’s first full V8 hybrid vehicle, the LS 600hL goes on sale.

F SPORT performance parts line launches at SEMA.


All-new LX 570 goes on sale.

Powered by a 416-hp V8 engine the Lexus IS F high-performance sedan was the most uncharacteristic car Lexus had ever built, demonstrating Lexus could make a car for high-performance enthusiasts.

Winner of the first Lexus Eco Challenge announced.

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Lexus introduces the all-new RX 350 and RX 450h luxury utility vehicles, reinventing the vehicle that invented it all.

The all-new IS 350C and IS 250C hard-top convertibles go on sale.

Second-generation RX 450h goes on sale.

More than 1 million RX vehicles have been sold in the U.S., making it the most successful luxury utility vehicle.

HS 250h, the world’s first hybrid-only luxury vehicle goes on sale.

All-new second generation GS 460 goes on sale.

LF-Ch premium compact hybrid concept makes North American debut.

Lexus’ 20th anniversary.


World premiere of the CT 200h, premium compact hybrid at the Geneva Motor Show.


First LFA production vehicle arrives in the United States. Only 500 hand-assembled LFA’s planned for production.

CT200h, Lexus’ fifth hybrid vehicles, goes on sale.

Lexus debuts new look of Lexus at the world premiere of the GS 350 at Pebble Beach Concourse d’Elegance

World premiere of GS 350 F SPORT in Las Vegas.


World premiere of LF-LC concept vehicle in Detroit.

LF-LC is named best concept car in the annual EyesOn Design Awards at the 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

Fourth-generation GS 350 and GS 450h go on sale, completely redesigned, inside and out, and features the brands’ new design philosophy, with styling cues such as a distinctive new front grill, that will be seen on all future Lexus vehicles.

Lexus debuts first-ever Super Bowl commercial for Super Bowl XLVI.

World-premiere of redesigned LS, including the first-ever LS 460 F SPORT, debuts at the “Lexus Laws of Attraction” exhibit in San Francisco. LS models go on sale.

Sixth generation ES 350 and first-ever ES 300h hybrid sedan go on sale.

Final Lexus LFA was built on December 14, 2012, ending the 500 unit run of the supercar.


World premiere of the third-generation IS sport sedan.

Lexus announces the selection of 12 winners for the 1st Lexus Design Award, an international design competition that targets next generation innovators around the world.

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World premiere of the RC F performance coupe at North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of the all-new NX 200t and NX 300h at Beijing International Automotive Exhibition.


World premiere of the GS F performance sedan at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of the fourth-generation RX at the New York International Auto Show.

Production of the ES 350 starts at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky (TMMK), the first U.S. built Lexus.


World premiere of LC 500 luxury coupe at North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of LC 500h luxury hybrid coupe at Geneva Motor Show.

First Lexus Plus Dealerships launches with negotiation-free pricing and single point of contact


World premiere of all-new fifth-generation LS 500 flagship sedan at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of all-new LS 500h at Geneva Motor Show.

Lexus Sport Yacht concept revealed in Miami.

First-ever three-row RX 350L and RX 350hL revealed at the L.A. Auto Show.

New two-row LX 570 revealed at the L.A. Auto Show.


World premiere of LF 1 Limitless concept at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of UX compact luxury crossover at Geneva Motor Show.

World premiere of seventh-generation ES luxury sedan at Beijing Motor Show.

Lexus LY 650 Luxury Yacht revealed.

Intersect by Lexus opens third global location in New York City.


First RC F Track Edition introduced at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

Ten Millionth Vehicle sold.

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Business and Investment

Benefits of Currency converter Apps




Benefits of Currency converter Apps-Currency converter Apps are a quick and easy way to see live market exchange rates at the click of a button, convert international currencies and do business with multinationals within and outside the shores of the country.

It is the prayer of every business minded person to be able to do business on an international scale and this in itself is a good desire. the major challenge with running foreign transactions is the need for an accurate conversion of currencies into the correct local equivalent. Those who currency traders and mostly referred to as Bureau operators are available and useful but an intelligent and well vast businessperson understands that to a large extent the best deals need a bit of verification and cross checking. Other times,persons who specialize in international trade may need an instant update wherever they may be. This is why it’s of uttermost benefit that there’s a host of currency conversion apps available for Android smart phones,Apple iPhones and systems.

We are going to be listing here for your knowledge and reading pleasure, five benefits of Currency converter Apps.

benefits of Currency converter Apps.

Image credit; HowToiSolve

Five benefits of Currency converter Apps

  • The Currency converter app is specifically programmed to do the entire task of monetary calculations for the user and because these apps are synchronized with the internet, they get the updated rate of exchange at all times, leaving no room for discrepancies. No currency exchange or transaction is ever possible without a good currency converter, at least to the best of our knowledge.
  • Currency converter Apps come in handy, are simple, are accurate and are fast to be employed in any situation as the user just has it either directly on his smart phone or computer system, providing him/her quick and real time access to doing business within and outside the shores of the country without fear of making human error that is a characteristic of most this transactions.
  • Currency converterApps are mostly free and come ad free too. They are ingrained with the unique feature that links all of them to a currency page online. Which proofreads them with the needed database that allows you discover in-depth the knowledge of individual currencies. Most of these converter Apps follows every currency being traded and offers a multiple-currency display to help you keep track of relative trends simultaneously and keeping you updated as well.
  • Currency converter Apps are able to handle a large number of popular currencies, it also has in built in it, several options that would make it appeal to a large number of business people. It has the ability to beoperated in offline mode – to save on the bandwidth and data time. In addition, it can track changes in the international markets and display it as a graph, helping to predict future trends and giving analytics. Paired with a constant update of currency news, this if you will agree with me is a major benefit of Currency Converters that exist as apps.
  • Currency converter Apps can be depended on for accurate and fast information. It is  dependable to provide information on real time. These apps have and easy to navigate, pleasing and easy to use interface,presents the latest data on world currencies and precious metals. Users can even have all such data tracked in real-time.
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General tips

Meaning of Storytelling



Storytelling is very powerful in the classroom, both for the teacher telling stories to students and for teaching students the technique. Storytelling promotes good attention and invites active involvement. It encourages visualization and the active use of imagination. It develops children’s sense of story and listening skills. Storytelling brings literature to children in a particularly satisfying way.

Teach students to take a short story, read it four of five times, ‘block the story’ by diagramming, making a story map, drawing key pictures, or writing down key scenes. Then teach students to watch in their mind’s eye each scene like a silent movies, observing every sensory detail. Then practice retelling. Storytelling teaches inner concentration. It is an excellent vehicle for motivating and helping students, particularly distractible, harder-to-reach students.

Oral reading in strategies

Oral reading in the classroom is necessary, but can be problematic. To discuss a story or text, it is naturally important that all students have read the material. However, round robin reading with the students taking individual turns reading aloud to the class is often not the most effective or productive, especially in a large classroom.

Students who have reading difficultly have a hard time following along and paying attention, these students lose the continuity, flow, and consequently, the meaning of the passage. They may become so fearful of being embarrassed by their poor skills in oral reading that they spend the whole period in panic, trying to predict what will be their portion to read and practicing ahead. Therefore, they are not listening or following along.

Try the following:

  1. Teacher orally reads and models for fluency, expression, and interest; students follow along in the text. Perhaps have students orally reread certain passages at teacher prompts. Have students locate information in the passages at teacher prompts and questioning, and orally reread those passage containing the information.
  2. Have students first read silently before the class or group reads orally. Students (particularly older ones) who are uncomfortable reading orally should never be forced to read out loud to the class. They should be able to volunteer when they wish to read in front of the class. Buddy reading or reading in small groups is a much ‘safer’, preferable way for students to practice their oral reading.
  3. Buddy or partner reading: assign (or let students pick) a reading buddy. After the pairs of children have read their stories silently, explain that the partners will take turns reading orally and listening. Indicate how many lines the children should read before letting their buddies have a turn. Often only one book is used by each pair during this activity, but for distractible children it may be better for each to have a copy of the book.
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Sometimes buddy reading is conducted with students sitting in pairs back to back, taking turns or reading in unison. Teachers can assign questions that each pair of students will need to be need to be able to answer. It is important that students be given a lot of space to spread out away from other pairs of students, so they won’t be distracted by all the voices reading at different paces.

Problems ADD/ADHD students may have with reading  

  1. Silent reading. They often need to sub vocalize or read quietly to themselves so they can hear their voice, maintain attention, and get meaning. If students do this, then permit them to do so. Many students need to auditory input and can’t get meaning by reading silently.
  2. Maintaining attention during whole class instruction. If possible, seat ADD students among well-focused students during this part of instruction. These children benefit the most from the opportunity to hear the selection on tape, and then reread with partners and small groups after the initial reading.
  3. Losing their train of thought and not being able to concentrate on what they are reading. A large percentage of individuals with ADD report this difficulty. They may have excellent decoding skills and fluency. However, due to their distractibility, they struggle tremendously with focusing on what they are reading, particularly if they find it dry, uninteresting, or difficult material. They report having to read and reread numerous times. Techniques such as reciprocal teaching, note taking, self-monitoring and questioning are helpful strategies to teach your students.
  4. Difficulty with the language/vocabulary of books being read. This is naturally one of the disadvantages of having everyone read from the same book. Some students will find the story or book far too difficulty for independent reading and decoding. They will, however, benefit from listening to the teacher read, rereading the story or hearing it reread. They will definitely gain tremendously from all of the creative, motivational while language techniques and activities related to the literature.
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However, these children very likely need more word attack/phonics training than they may be receiving in their reading programs. They need to develop strategies for independently decoding new, unfamiliar words. Not all students can be taught independent reading kills with whole word/sight techniques. There are many children who still need to be taught specific strategies for sounding out unfamiliar words. They need to see and recognize common visual patterns in words, for example;

Consonant – vowel – consonant (hat)

Consonant – vowel – consonant – finale (hate)

Elementary (particularly primary grade) teachers need to work at their sites by grade level to brainstorm ways to provide this extra assistance to any students in need of more intensive decoding skill instruction. Not all students have this need, but many do. There are many good supplementary programs for providing extra training in phonics.

  1. Difficulty visually focusing on the print, losing their place (tracking): encourage students to use strips of cardboard for markers or to use their finger to track, if needed. Some students may benefit from using a ‘window box’. A sample patterns follows, any number of variations may work. On the sample window box, the notches along the sides of the card are different sizes to accommodate different sized print in the book. Students select an appropriate notch and place it at the beginning of each line (sliding it down the left side of the page). Other children may need to place the window box over the page, blocking out the print except for the word that are exposed in the window. They slide the card across the page to reveal a few words at a time. The window can be cut as large as desired.
  2. Needing more one-to-one assistance, small group skill work: once again, each site needs to use all of its resources to provide additional assistance to students who need more help (reading specialists, basic skills teachers, aides, parent volunteers, cross-age tutors, peer-tutors, teacher directed skill groups, tutoring before or after school, computer-lab assistance, tape-recording selections for students to listen to and follow along with).
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