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Poverty in Nigeria, Rate, Causes and Effects

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Poverty in Nigeria

Poverty in Nigeria: Nigeria has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Petroleum and oil resources plays a large role in the Nigerian economy. The country is the 6th largest producer of petroleum in the world; it is the 8th largest exporter and has the 10th largest proven reserves.

While the revenues made from oil provide the largest source of income for Nigeria, the country has become overly-dependent on its oil sector whereas other areas of the economy such as agriculture, palm oil production and coconut processing are in decline.

Nigeria possesses a stark dichotomy of wealth and poverty. Although the country is rich in natural resources, its economy can not yet meet the basic needs of the people. Such disparity between the growth of the GDP and the increasing poverty is indicative of a skewed distribution of Nigeria’s wealth.

The 2007 United Nations Human Development Index ranks Nigeria 158 out of 177 countries; this is a significant decrease in its human development rank of 151 in 2004. About 64 per cent of households in Nigeria consider themselves to be poor while 32 per cent of households say their economic situation had worsened over a period of one year. Although National statistics report that the trend in poverty is on the decline, it is painstakingly sluggish and progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger is slow. Poverty still remains one of the most critical challenges facing the country and population growth rates have meant a steady increase in the number of poor. Life expectancy remains low and is estimated to have decreased from 47 years in 1990 to 44 years in 2005.

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Poverty in Nigeria

Health, health care and general living conditions in Nigeria are poor, especially for children and women. Infant and under-five mortality rates are high. The weakened Public Health Care (PHC) system with low coverage of key interventions has resulted in the persistence of high disease burden.Years of military dictatorship, corruption, political instability and poor governance have meant insufficient investments in the country’s infrastructure and basic services. Corruption is one of the principal challenges in Nigeria, raising the cost and risk of doing business in the country and making the country unattractive to investors. The Government has been exerting conscious efforts to combat corruption, first with the passing of the anti-corruption bill and then via establishment of the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission and the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission.

HIV/AIDS remains a major issue of concern among children, young people and women in Nigeria with a prevalence rate of 4.4 per cent. An estimated 2.9 million Nigerians (mostly females) are living with the virus. The epidemic is also increasing the population of orphans in the country, which is already estimated at 7 million.

Nigeria’s education system is also in a state of neglect largely due to decaying institutional infrastructure. Sixty-six per cent of the population is literate, and at 75 per cent, the rate for men is higher than that for women which is 57 per cent.

As part of Nigeria’s plan for overcoming poverty and generating national wealth and employment, the Federal Government developed the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) in 2004. NEEDS has four elements: re-orientating values, reducing poverty, creating wealth and generating employment. It also set out public reforms necessary to achieve this and the support required from the international community. NEEDS was cascaded in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory as well as in local governments with equivalent action plans called SEEDS and LEEDS respectively. NEEDS I, the first phase of the development strategy was implemented from 2003-2007. The Government is working on implementing the second phase, NEEDS II.

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In 2005, Nigeria successfully negotiated US$ 18 billion worth of debt relief from the Paris Club of creditors. It was the largest debt relief in Africa and the second in the world. The deal released approximately US$ 1 billion per year which the Nigerian Government directed to pro-poor projects that would help the country achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Each year, in addition to the pro-poor spending, an equivalent sum is set aside in the budget for MDG-related projects including renovating and equipping dilapidated primary health centres, building rural roads and recruiting teachers for rural areas that are in the greatest need.

In order for Nigeria to make appreciable progress on poverty reduction and ensure that the majority of its people enjoy improved quality of life, there has to be an increase in national expenditure allocated to social services; an increase in the capacity to deliver public services and better utilisation of resources. In addition, development projects implemented at the Federal Government level need to be continued and replicated across the States and Local Government Areas.

Causes of Poverty in Nigeria

  • Unemployment
  • Corruption
  • Political instability
  • Poor governance
  • Non-Diversification of the Economy – Oil Over-Dependency
  • Income inequality
  • Under-utilization of labor resources
  • Poor Education System

Effects of Poverty in Nigeria

  • Poor health
  • Poor or no education
  • Death
  • Child Abuse
  • Crime

Poverty Rate in Nigeria – Poverty in Nigeria

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Poverty in Nigeria – Video

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The History Of Lexus And Milestones Reached From 1989 To 2019

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The History Of Lexus And Milestones Reached From 1989 To 2019

Lexus is the luxury vehicle division of the Toyota Motor Corporation and also Japan’s largest selling band of premium cars.

The history of Lexus could be traced back to a covert sedan project, a challenge issued by the founder Eiji Toyoda to create the world’s best car.

Below is what went down about Lexus from the year 1989 to 2019.

1989

Lexus launched with two sedans, the LS 400 and ES 250, and a commitment to pursue perfection.

A single consumer complaint launches a special service campaign, earning the brand recognition as the new standard in personalized service.

1990

Out of thousands of parties interested in a Lexus franchise, only 121 top-notch dealers are selected for Lexus’ first year of business.

1991

Lexus introduced an all-new ES 330 as well as the SC 300 and SC 300 sport coupes.

Lexus outsold both Mercedes-Benz and BMW to become the best-selling luxury import brand in the U.S.

1993

The GS 300 luxury sport sedan was introduced.

Industry-leading Certified Pre-Owned (CPO) program was introduced.

1994

Completely redesigned second generation LS 400 goes on sale.

1995

100% tariffs on select Japanese luxury vehicles proposed by U.S. government in effort to settle long-standing U.S.-Japan trade dispute.

An agreement was reached between U.S. and Japan and trade war averted.

The LX 450 luxury sport utility was announced.

1996

Lexus LX 450 and all-new ES 300 go on sale.

1997

Redesigned LS 400 featuring VVT-I was introduced.

Next-generation GS 400 and GS 300 luxury performance sedans go on sale.

1998

Lexus introduced the RX 300, which created the luxury crossover segment.

Lexus LX 470 luxury sport utility vehicle debuted.

Monthly sales surpass al luxury competitors – a first for any international automaker.

1999

One-millionth vehicle sold in the U.S.

2000

Lexus develops a second offering in the entry-luxury sedan category with the IS 300 sport sedan.

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First import luxury brand to sell 20,000+ vehicles in one month.

Lexus became the top-selling luxury brand in the U.S.

2001

Lexus updates its classic SC model into a hardtop convertible, the SC 430.

Fourth-generation ES 300 goes on sale.

2002

The ES 300 and RX 300 are America’s best-selling luxury car and SUV.

The GX 470 mid-size luxury sport utility vehicle was announced.

LF-S, first Lexus Future concept vehicle, unveiled in Tokyo, showcases new design philosophy.

2003

All-new second generation RX 330 goes on sale.

LF-X concept vehicle unveiled.

Lexus announces the RX 330 will become the first Lexus vehicle to be manufactured in North America at the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada, Inc. (TMMC) in Cambridge, Ontario facility in Canada. It is the first plant outside Japan to produce a Lexus model.

2004

Two-millionth vehicle sold in the U.S.

2005

Introduced the world’s first luxury hybrid vehicle, the RX 400h.

Third-generation GS 300 and GS 430 go on sale.

All-new IS 250 and IS 350 sport sedans go on sale.

LFA super-premium two-seat GT sports car concept revealed in Detroit

LF-Sh concept vehicle revealed in Tokyo.

Lexus-badged vehicles sold in Japan for the first time.

2006

Lexus’ second hybrid offering and industry’s first luxury hybrid sport sedan, GS 450h, goes on sale.

ES 350, LS 460 and LS 460 L goes on sale.

2007

Lexus Pursuit of Potential philanthropic program launches

Premium hybrid sedan, the world’s first full V8 hybrid vehicle, the LS 600hL goes on sale.

F SPORT performance parts line launches at SEMA.

2008

All-new LX 570 goes on sale.

Powered by a 416-hp V8 engine the Lexus IS F high-performance sedan was the most uncharacteristic car Lexus had ever built, demonstrating Lexus could make a car for high-performance enthusiasts.

Winner of the first Lexus Eco Challenge announced.

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2009

Lexus introduces the all-new RX 350 and RX 450h luxury utility vehicles, reinventing the vehicle that invented it all.

The all-new IS 350C and IS 250C hard-top convertibles go on sale.

Second-generation RX 450h goes on sale.

More than 1 million RX vehicles have been sold in the U.S., making it the most successful luxury utility vehicle.

HS 250h, the world’s first hybrid-only luxury vehicle goes on sale.

All-new second generation GS 460 goes on sale.

LF-Ch premium compact hybrid concept makes North American debut.

Lexus’ 20th anniversary.

2010

World premiere of the CT 200h, premium compact hybrid at the Geneva Motor Show.

2011

First LFA production vehicle arrives in the United States. Only 500 hand-assembled LFA’s planned for production.

CT200h, Lexus’ fifth hybrid vehicles, goes on sale.

Lexus debuts new look of Lexus at the world premiere of the GS 350 at Pebble Beach Concourse d’Elegance

World premiere of GS 350 F SPORT in Las Vegas.

2012

World premiere of LF-LC concept vehicle in Detroit.

LF-LC is named best concept car in the annual EyesOn Design Awards at the 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

Fourth-generation GS 350 and GS 450h go on sale, completely redesigned, inside and out, and features the brands’ new design philosophy, with styling cues such as a distinctive new front grill, that will be seen on all future Lexus vehicles.

Lexus debuts first-ever Super Bowl commercial for Super Bowl XLVI.

World-premiere of redesigned LS, including the first-ever LS 460 F SPORT, debuts at the “Lexus Laws of Attraction” exhibit in San Francisco. LS models go on sale.

Sixth generation ES 350 and first-ever ES 300h hybrid sedan go on sale.

Final Lexus LFA was built on December 14, 2012, ending the 500 unit run of the supercar.

2013

World premiere of the third-generation IS sport sedan.

Lexus announces the selection of 12 winners for the 1st Lexus Design Award, an international design competition that targets next generation innovators around the world.

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2014

World premiere of the RC F performance coupe at North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of the all-new NX 200t and NX 300h at Beijing International Automotive Exhibition.

2015

World premiere of the GS F performance sedan at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of the fourth-generation RX at the New York International Auto Show.

Production of the ES 350 starts at Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky (TMMK), the first U.S. built Lexus.

2016

World premiere of LC 500 luxury coupe at North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of LC 500h luxury hybrid coupe at Geneva Motor Show.

First Lexus Plus Dealerships launches with negotiation-free pricing and single point of contact

2017

World premiere of all-new fifth-generation LS 500 flagship sedan at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of all-new LS 500h at Geneva Motor Show.

Lexus Sport Yacht concept revealed in Miami.

First-ever three-row RX 350L and RX 350hL revealed at the L.A. Auto Show.

New two-row LX 570 revealed at the L.A. Auto Show.

2018

World premiere of LF 1 Limitless concept at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

World premiere of UX compact luxury crossover at Geneva Motor Show.

World premiere of seventh-generation ES luxury sedan at Beijing Motor Show.

Lexus LY 650 Luxury Yacht revealed.

Intersect by Lexus opens third global location in New York City.

2019

First RC F Track Edition introduced at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

Ten Millionth Vehicle sold.

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Business and Investment

Benefits of Currency converter Apps

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Benefits of Currency converter Apps-Currency converter Apps are a quick and easy way to see live market exchange rates at the click of a button, convert international currencies and do business with multinationals within and outside the shores of the country.

It is the prayer of every business minded person to be able to do business on an international scale and this in itself is a good desire. the major challenge with running foreign transactions is the need for an accurate conversion of currencies into the correct local equivalent. Those who currency traders and mostly referred to as Bureau operators are available and useful but an intelligent and well vast businessperson understands that to a large extent the best deals need a bit of verification and cross checking. Other times,persons who specialize in international trade may need an instant update wherever they may be. This is why it’s of uttermost benefit that there’s a host of currency conversion apps available for Android smart phones,Apple iPhones and systems.

We are going to be listing here for your knowledge and reading pleasure, five benefits of Currency converter Apps.

benefits of Currency converter Apps.

Image credit; HowToiSolve

Five benefits of Currency converter Apps

  • The Currency converter app is specifically programmed to do the entire task of monetary calculations for the user and because these apps are synchronized with the internet, they get the updated rate of exchange at all times, leaving no room for discrepancies. No currency exchange or transaction is ever possible without a good currency converter, at least to the best of our knowledge.
  • Currency converter Apps come in handy, are simple, are accurate and are fast to be employed in any situation as the user just has it either directly on his smart phone or computer system, providing him/her quick and real time access to doing business within and outside the shores of the country without fear of making human error that is a characteristic of most this transactions.
  • Currency converterApps are mostly free and come ad free too. They are ingrained with the unique feature that links all of them to a currency page online. Which proofreads them with the needed database that allows you discover in-depth the knowledge of individual currencies. Most of these converter Apps follows every currency being traded and offers a multiple-currency display to help you keep track of relative trends simultaneously and keeping you updated as well.
  • Currency converter Apps are able to handle a large number of popular currencies, it also has in built in it, several options that would make it appeal to a large number of business people. It has the ability to beoperated in offline mode – to save on the bandwidth and data time. In addition, it can track changes in the international markets and display it as a graph, helping to predict future trends and giving analytics. Paired with a constant update of currency news, this if you will agree with me is a major benefit of Currency Converters that exist as apps.
  • Currency converter Apps can be depended on for accurate and fast information. It is  dependable to provide information on real time. These apps have and easy to navigate, pleasing and easy to use interface,presents the latest data on world currencies and precious metals. Users can even have all such data tracked in real-time.
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General tips

Meaning of Storytelling

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Storytelling is very powerful in the classroom, both for the teacher telling stories to students and for teaching students the technique. Storytelling promotes good attention and invites active involvement. It encourages visualization and the active use of imagination. It develops children’s sense of story and listening skills. Storytelling brings literature to children in a particularly satisfying way.

Teach students to take a short story, read it four of five times, ‘block the story’ by diagramming, making a story map, drawing key pictures, or writing down key scenes. Then teach students to watch in their mind’s eye each scene like a silent movies, observing every sensory detail. Then practice retelling. Storytelling teaches inner concentration. It is an excellent vehicle for motivating and helping students, particularly distractible, harder-to-reach students.

Oral reading in strategies

Oral reading in the classroom is necessary, but can be problematic. To discuss a story or text, it is naturally important that all students have read the material. However, round robin reading with the students taking individual turns reading aloud to the class is often not the most effective or productive, especially in a large classroom.

Students who have reading difficultly have a hard time following along and paying attention, these students lose the continuity, flow, and consequently, the meaning of the passage. They may become so fearful of being embarrassed by their poor skills in oral reading that they spend the whole period in panic, trying to predict what will be their portion to read and practicing ahead. Therefore, they are not listening or following along.

Try the following:

  1. Teacher orally reads and models for fluency, expression, and interest; students follow along in the text. Perhaps have students orally reread certain passages at teacher prompts. Have students locate information in the passages at teacher prompts and questioning, and orally reread those passage containing the information.
  2. Have students first read silently before the class or group reads orally. Students (particularly older ones) who are uncomfortable reading orally should never be forced to read out loud to the class. They should be able to volunteer when they wish to read in front of the class. Buddy reading or reading in small groups is a much ‘safer’, preferable way for students to practice their oral reading.
  3. Buddy or partner reading: assign (or let students pick) a reading buddy. After the pairs of children have read their stories silently, explain that the partners will take turns reading orally and listening. Indicate how many lines the children should read before letting their buddies have a turn. Often only one book is used by each pair during this activity, but for distractible children it may be better for each to have a copy of the book.
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Sometimes buddy reading is conducted with students sitting in pairs back to back, taking turns or reading in unison. Teachers can assign questions that each pair of students will need to be need to be able to answer. It is important that students be given a lot of space to spread out away from other pairs of students, so they won’t be distracted by all the voices reading at different paces.

Problems ADD/ADHD students may have with reading  

  1. Silent reading. They often need to sub vocalize or read quietly to themselves so they can hear their voice, maintain attention, and get meaning. If students do this, then permit them to do so. Many students need to auditory input and can’t get meaning by reading silently.
  2. Maintaining attention during whole class instruction. If possible, seat ADD students among well-focused students during this part of instruction. These children benefit the most from the opportunity to hear the selection on tape, and then reread with partners and small groups after the initial reading.
  3. Losing their train of thought and not being able to concentrate on what they are reading. A large percentage of individuals with ADD report this difficulty. They may have excellent decoding skills and fluency. However, due to their distractibility, they struggle tremendously with focusing on what they are reading, particularly if they find it dry, uninteresting, or difficult material. They report having to read and reread numerous times. Techniques such as reciprocal teaching, note taking, self-monitoring and questioning are helpful strategies to teach your students.
  4. Difficulty with the language/vocabulary of books being read. This is naturally one of the disadvantages of having everyone read from the same book. Some students will find the story or book far too difficulty for independent reading and decoding. They will, however, benefit from listening to the teacher read, rereading the story or hearing it reread. They will definitely gain tremendously from all of the creative, motivational while language techniques and activities related to the literature.
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However, these children very likely need more word attack/phonics training than they may be receiving in their reading programs. They need to develop strategies for independently decoding new, unfamiliar words. Not all students can be taught independent reading kills with whole word/sight techniques. There are many children who still need to be taught specific strategies for sounding out unfamiliar words. They need to see and recognize common visual patterns in words, for example;

Consonant – vowel – consonant (hat)

Consonant – vowel – consonant – finale (hate)

Elementary (particularly primary grade) teachers need to work at their sites by grade level to brainstorm ways to provide this extra assistance to any students in need of more intensive decoding skill instruction. Not all students have this need, but many do. There are many good supplementary programs for providing extra training in phonics.

  1. Difficulty visually focusing on the print, losing their place (tracking): encourage students to use strips of cardboard for markers or to use their finger to track, if needed. Some students may benefit from using a ‘window box’. A sample patterns follows, any number of variations may work. On the sample window box, the notches along the sides of the card are different sizes to accommodate different sized print in the book. Students select an appropriate notch and place it at the beginning of each line (sliding it down the left side of the page). Other children may need to place the window box over the page, blocking out the print except for the word that are exposed in the window. They slide the card across the page to reveal a few words at a time. The window can be cut as large as desired.
  2. Needing more one-to-one assistance, small group skill work: once again, each site needs to use all of its resources to provide additional assistance to students who need more help (reading specialists, basic skills teachers, aides, parent volunteers, cross-age tutors, peer-tutors, teacher directed skill groups, tutoring before or after school, computer-lab assistance, tape-recording selections for students to listen to and follow along with).
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